This is all controlled by one major chip, which contains exactly what is referred to as an engine 'map'. This map 'reads' all the inputs from sensors as well as is set to give the ideal settings under a large stove of situations. However, perfection is impossible to accomplish typically, as a variety of compromises have actually to be made. Mainly this is due to economic situations of scale. Manufacturers have to make cars for a large array of markets where problems such as fuel taste can have an impact. As several cars made use of in Europe could be driven into neighbouring countrysides with poorer fuels readily available, or will be utilized in extreme atmospheres where dust and also severe elevations are prevalent, the engine management map is a 'broad brush' method to take all this into consideration.
Basically, there is no longer any type of factor to consider engine remapping for either enhancing efficiency at the cost of fuel usage, or the other way around. There are a number of expert remapping companies who will provide you the chance to have your pie as well as eat it!