This is all governed by one major chip, which contains exactly what is recognized as an engine 'map'. This map 'checks out' all the inputs from sensors and is programmed to supply the optimal settings under a vast array of situations. Nonetheless, perfection is impossible to achieve generally, as a number of compromises need to be made. Largely this is because of economic situations of scale. Producers have to make cars for a vast array of markets where issues such as energy quality could have an impact. As several automobiles utilized in Europe will be driven into neighbouring nations with poorer energies offered, or may be used in severe atmospheres where dust and severe heights are prevalent, the engine management map is a 'extensive brush' approach to take all this into factor to consider.
Basically, there is no longer any type of factor to think about engine remapping with a view to either enhancing efficiency at the expense of fuel intake, or the other way around. There are a number of expert remapping firms who will offer you the opportunity to have your cake and eat it!